Contrasting between hitched and you can single women in this a long time have been simply consistently observed in brand new 20–24-year-dated category

Contrasting between hitched and you can single women in this a long time have been simply consistently observed in brand new 20–24-year-dated category

The interaction between marital status and maternal age groups was statistically significant for the three outcomes in the four countries in both models (p-value < 0.001),>

USA: Adjusted to own infant sex, past birth, 12 months out-of birth, paternal decades, maternal competition/ethnicity, foreign-created mother, one maternal smoking while pregnant, prenatal proper care adequacy (GINDEX), received WIC while pregnant, and birth mostly repaid by Medicaid

Minimally (A) and country-specific fully (B) adjusted odds ratios of preterm birth by maternal age group and marital status in Brazil, Ecuador, USA, and Canada. † Adjusted for infant sex, previous birth, and year of birth. ‡ Brazil: Adjusted for infant sex, previous birth, year of birth, paternal age, maternal race, prenatal care initiated in 1 st trimester, state, and age-appropriate low education. Canada: Adjusted for infant sex, previous birth, year of birth, paternal age, foreign-born mother, foreign-born father, province/territory of birth, reside in rural or urban area, and area-level income quintiles. ***p < 0.0001,>

Minimally (A) and country-specific fully (B) adjusted odds ratios of small for gestational age by maternal age group and marital status in Brazil, Ecuador, USA, and Canada. † Adjusted for previous birth and year of birth. ‡ Brazil: Adjusted for previous birth, year of birth, paternal age, maternal race, prenatal care initiated in 1 st trimester, state, and age-appropriate low education. Ecuador: Adjusted for previous birth, year of birth, maternal ethnicity, foreign-born mother, adequacy of the number of prenatal care visits for gestational age (WHO), maternal literacy, and maternal region of residence and rurality. USA: Adjusted for previous birth, year of birth, paternal age, maternal race/ethnicity, foreign-born mother, any maternal smoking during pregnancy, prenatal care adequacy (GINDEX), received WIC during pregnancy, and delivery primarily paid by Medicaid. Canada: Adjusted for previous birth, year of birth, paternal age, foreign-born mother, foreign-born father, province/territory of birth, reside in rural or urban area, and area-level income quintiles. ***p < 0.0001,>

In all countries, married mothers aged 20–24 years had consistently lower odds of SGA than their unmarried counterparts, with the only exception of Canada in the minimally adjusted model (Fig. 4, Panel A). However, this association became statistically significant in the fully adjusted model (Fig. 4, Panel B). Among 18–19-year-old women, marriage was only associated with slightly lower odds in Brazil (p-value < 0.0001)>

Unlike preterm birth and SGA, comparisons of repeat birth by marriage status were restricted within age group strata (Fig. 5) because the likelihood of previous births is strongly colinear with age. Unlike Brazil and Ecuador, married women in the USA and Canada had higher odds of repeat birth than unmarried women in all age groups. In all countries, the highest odds of repeat birth were observed among married Mumbaian kadД±n personel mothers aged < 18>

Ecuador: Modified getting kid sex, early in the day birth, year from delivery, maternal ethnicity, foreign-produced mother, adequacy of level of prenatal worry visits to have gestational decades (WHO), maternal literacy, and maternal region of residence and you can rurality

Minimally (A) and country-specific fully (B) adjusted odds ratios of repeat birth for married mothers versus unmarried mothers within maternal age group in Brazil, Ecuador, USA, and Canada. † Adjusted for year of birth. ‡ Brazil: Adjusted for year of birth, paternal age, maternal race, state, and age-appropriate low education. Ecuador: Adjusted for year of birth, maternal ethnicity, foreign-born mother, maternal literacy, and maternal region of residence and rurality. USA: Adjusted for year of birth, paternal age, maternal race/ethnicity, foreign-born mother, received WIC during pregnancy, and delivery primarily paid by Medicaid. Canada: Adjusted for year of birth, paternal age, foreign-born mother, foreign-born father, province/territory of birth, reside in rural or urban area, and area-level income quintiles. ***p < 0.0001,>

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